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IELTS Reading: Cambridge 11 Test 1, Reading Passage 3, Reducing the Effects of Climate Change, with solutions and best explanations

,This IELTS Reading series post is the final one from Cambridge IELTS Series 11 Test 1. Here, I’ve discussed the solutions with best explanations for Reading Passage 3 which entitles “Reducing the Effects of Climate Change”. To attain the best benefits from this post, you need to have a copy of Cambridge IELTS Series 11 and workout according to the instructions given in this post. Hopefully, this post will help you to explain the confusing questions and answers.


Title of the passage: Reducing the Effects of Climate Change

Questions 27-29 (Identifying Information):

[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. For this passage, first answer questions 4- 13. After finishing with these questions, come to questions 1-3. And just like the List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph. Keywords will be a useful matter here.]

  1. mention of a geo-engineering project based on an earlier natural phenomenon.

Keywords for this question: geo-engineering, earlier natural phenomenon

Here, the question asks us to find whether a geo-engineering project had been modelled on any natural phenomenon. We can skim the paragraphs one by one and in paragraph D, we find the mention of a natural phenomenon or disaster in lines 3-4, where it states, “The idea is modelled on historic volcanic explosions, such as that of Mount Pinatubo…… . .

So, the answer is: D

  1. an example of a successful use of geo-engineering.

Keywords for this question: successful use, geo-engineering

In paragraph B lines 1-2 say, “Geo-engineering has been shown to work, at least on a small localized scale. For decades, May Day parades in Moscow have taken place under clear blue skies, aircraft having deposited dry ice, silver iodide and cement powder to disperse cloud.’’

We can easily find here an example of a successful use of geo-engineering.

So, the answer is: B

  1. a common definition of geo-engineering

Keywords for this question: common, definition

Generally, a definition of anything can be found in the first few paragraphs. So, we need to look carefully in Paragraph A. In paragraph A lines 7-8 state, “…. … .  .geo-engineeringa term which generally refers to the intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment.”

Here, refers to = means / defines

So, the answer is: A

Questions 30-36 (Completing table)

[Here, the candidates are given a table with two portions where there are some blanks. Candidates must fill up these blanks with ONE WORD only. Finding keywords quickly can help here a lot.]

  1. to create a _________ that would reduce the amount of light reaching Earth.

Keywords for this question: create, would reduce, light reaching earth

Look carefully through the first few paragraphs and try to find out the word ‘spacecraft’ because this word is found in the Procedure column in the question. The mention of the word ‘spacecraft’ can be found in paragraph B, line 6. So, we have to scan from here. Lines 6-8 say, “…. His scheme would employ up to 16 trillion minute spacecraft, each weighing about one gram, to form a transparent, sunlight-refracting sunshade in an orbit 1.5 million km above the Earth. This could, argues Angel, reduce the amount of light reaching the Earth by two per cent.”

Here, tiny = minute, create = form, far above Earth = 1.5 million km above the Earth

So, the answer is: sunshade

  1. place………in the sea

Keywords for this question: place, the sea

In paragraph C, line 2 the writer says, “…. . . and depositing iron in the ocean to stimulate the growth of algae – …”.

Here, depositing = place, ocean = the sea

So, the answer is: iron

  1. to encourage …… form

Keywords for this question: encourage, to form

In paragraph C, line 2 the writer says, “…. . . and depositing iron in the ocean to stimulate the growth of algae – …”.

Here, to stimulate the growth = encourage, to form

So, the answer is: algae

  1. to create ……….that would reduce the amount of light reaching Earth.

Keywords for this question: create, would reduce, light reaching Earth

To find this question, we need to find out the paragraph that contains the information about aerosol sprays because there is a phrase – ‘aerosol spray’ – in the Procedure column. We find the phrase ‘aerosol spray’ in paragraph D, line 1, and in line 3 it says, “… .. .. so that sulphur dioxide would form clouds which would, in turn, lead to a global dimming.”

Here, create = form, reduce the amount of light reaching Earth = a global dimming,

So, the answer is: clouds

  1. fix strong……to Greenland ice sheets

Keywords for this question: fix, strong, Greenland ice sheets

Just try to find the word ‘Greenland’ and you will get the answer. Focusing on paragraph D, we find the following lines – “Scientists have also scrutinized whether it’s possible to preserve the ice sheets of Greenland with reinforced high-tension cables, preventing icebergs from moving into the sea.”

Here, strong = reinforced

So, the answer is: cables

  1. to allow the…… reflect radiation

Keywords for this question: allow, reflect, radiation

As said by the table, we have to find out information about planting trees in Russian Arctic, because at the end of paragraph D, the author says, “Meanwhile in the Russian Arctic, geo-engineering plans include the planting of millions of birch trees. Whereas the region’s native evergreen pines shade the snow and absorb radiation, birches would shed their leaves in winter, thus enabling radiation to be reflected by the snow.” So, planting trees would allow snow to reflect radiation.

Here, lose = shed, allow = enable

So, the answer is: snow

  1. change the direction of ……….. to bring more cold water into ice-forming areas.

Keywords for this question: change, direction, to bring, more cold water, ice-forming areas

For this question, the keyword is ice-forming areas. At the end of paragraph D, the author points out that “Re-routing Russian rivers to increase cold water flow to ice-forming areas could also be used to slow down warming, say some climate scientists.”

Here, change the direction of = re-route, bring more cold water =  increase cold water flow

So, the answer is: rivers

Questions 37-40 (Matching statements with a list of people)

[In this kind of question, candidates have to match the given statements in the questions with the persons who gave those statements in the passage. To successfully answer these questions, you need to follow some simple steps:

Step 1: Read the questions carefully and select the keywords,
Step 2: Take a look at the list of people,
Step 3: Start reading from the beginning and quickly look for the names of people with any statement.
Step 4: When you find a names with statements, read it attentively and match it with the questions.
Step 5: Mark it properly so that you do need not to read it again. Then go to the next statement in the text.
Step 6: Continue doing the same for the rest of the questions.]

For these questions, we must focus on the last four paragraphs of Reading Passage 3 which contain the scientists’ statements.

  1. The effects of geo-engineering may not be long-lasting.

Keywords for this question: effects, not long-lasting

In paragraph E, there is a statement from Dr Phil Rasch which is as follows – “I think all of us agree that if we were to end geo-engineering on a given day, then the planet would return to its pre-engineered condition very rapidly… . . .. ” This means that once geo-engineering does its job, the effects of it on the planet may end, too. In other words, “the effects of geoengineering may not be long-lasting”

So, the answer is: B

  1. Geo-engineering is a topic worth exploring

Keywords for this question: worth exploring

In the last paragraph, Dr Martin Sommerkorn gives stress that “Human-induced climate change has brought humanity to a position where we shouldn’t exclude thinking thoroughly about this topic and its possibilities.”

Here, we find some matches:

worth exploring = shouldn’t exclude thinking thoroughly

So, the answer is: D

  1. It may be necessary to limit the effectiveness of geo-engineering projects.

Keywords for this question: limit

In paragraph G, we find a statement from Dan Lunt – “To avoid such a scenario, Lunt says Angel’s project would have to operate at half strength; all of which reinforces his view that the best option is to avoid the need for  geo- engineering altogether.”

Here, limit the effectiveness = operate at half strength

So, the answer is: C

  1. Research into non-fossil-based fuels cannot be replaced by geo-engineering.

Keywords for this question: non-fossil-based fuels

The answer is in paragraph E, Angel says that his plan is “no substitute for developing renewable energy, the only ‘permanent solution’.”

Here, non-fossil-based fuels = renewable energy, cannot be replaced = no substitute for

So, the answer is: A

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 11 Test 1 Reading Passage 1

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 11 Test 1 Reading Passage 2

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