This General Training IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 12 Reading Test 5 Section 3 that has a passage titled ‘A brief history of automata’. This is a targeted post for GT IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the GT module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.
IELTS Cambridge 12 Test 5: GT Reading Module
Section 3: Question 28-40
The headline of the passage: A brief history of automata
Questions 28-30: Summary completion
[In this kind of questions candidates are given a summary for one, two or three paragraphs with some fill in the blanks questions. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords from the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers to fill in the gaps.]
Title of the summary: Automata and the ancient Greeks
Question 28: The ancient Greeks had a number of ________ concerning automata. According to one, the god Hephaestus created two assistants made of gold.
Keywords for this question: ancient Greeks, a number of, concerning automata, god Hephaestus, created, two assistants, gold,
In paragraph no. 1, take a look at lines 3-6, “ . .. . . Several myths show that the ancient Greeks were interested in the creation of automata. In one, Hephaestus, the god of all mechanical arts, was reputed to have made two female statues of pure gold which assisted him and accompanied him wherever he went. … .. .”
Here, several = a number of, interested in the creation of automata = concerning automata,
So, the answer is: myths
Question 29: The Greeks probably also created real automata; it seems most likely that the mechanism which controlled them consisted of ________ which were worked by human operators.
Keywords for this question: Greeks, probably, also created, real automata, most likely, mechanism, controlled them, consisted of, human operators,
In lines 6-8 of paragraph no. 1, the writer of the text says, “ … . .. . As well as giving automata a place in mythology, the Greek almost certainly created some. There were probably activated by levers and powered by human action, although there are descriptions of steam and water being used as sources of power. . .. ..”
Here, the Greek almost certainly created some = The Greeks probably also created real automata, probably = mostly likely, activated by = controlled them consisted of, powered by human action = worked by human operators,
So, the answer is: levers
Question 30: Some automata were designed to be _________ with an educational purpose.
Keywords for this question: some automata, designed to be, with, educational purpose,
The final lines of paragraph no. 1 say, “ . . .. . .. . Automata were sometimes intended as toys, or as tools for demonstrating basic scientific principles.”
Here, intended = designed to be, for demonstrating basic scientific principles = with an educational purpose,
So, the answer is: tools
Questions 31-35: Matching statements with list of people
[In this type of question, candidates need to relate statements that are given by or links to people in the passage. The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the name of the person and read around it carefully. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same person in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order.]
Question 31: created an automation that represented a bird in water, interacting with its surroundings
Keywords for this question: created, automation, represented, bird in water, interacting with, surroundings,
We find reference to ‘a bird in water which interacts with its surroundings’ in paragraph no. 6. Let’s read it.
“In another well-known piece, Merlin’s sliver swan made in 1773, the swan sits in a stream consisting of glass rods where small silver fish are swimming. When the clockwork is wound, a music box plays and the glass rods rotate, giving the impression of a flowing stream. The swan turns its head from side to side. It soon notices the fish and bends down to catch and eat one, then raises its head to the upright position. The mechanism still works.”
Here, sliver swan … sits in a stream = a bird in water,
So, the answer is: F (Merlin)
Question 32: created an automation that performed on a musical instrument
Keywords for this question: created, automation, performed on, musical instrument,
The answer lies in paragraph no. 5. Here, take a look at lines 6-9, “ . .. . . Vaucanson produced a duck made of gilded copper which ate, drank and quacked like a real duck. He also made a life-size female flute player. Air passes through the complex mechanism, causing the lips and fingers of the player to move naturally on the flute, opening and closing holes on it. This automation had a repertoire of twelve tunes.”
Here, female flute player = automation that performed on a musical instrument,
So, the answer is: E (Vaucanson)
Question 33: produced documents about how to create automata
Keywords for this question: produced documents, how to create, automata,
The answer can be found in the first lines of paragraph no. 3, where the writer says, “Much later, Arab engineers of the ninth and thirteenth centuries wrote detailed treatises on how to build programmable musical fountains, mechanical servants, and elaborate clocks. . . .. . .. .”
Here, wrote detailed treatises = produced documents,
how to build programmable musical fountains, mechanical servants, and elaborate clocks = how to create automata,
So, the answer is: B (Arab engineers)
Question 34: created automata which required a human being to operate the mechanism
Keywords for this question: created automata, required, human being, operate, mechanism,
Again, the answer can be found in paragraph no. 5, as lines 4-6 say, “ . .. .. Maillardet made extensive use of gearing and cogs to produce automata of horses, worked by turning a handle. . . .. ..”
Here, produce automata = created automata, worked by turning a handle = required a human being to operate the mechanism,
So, the answer is: D (Maillardet)
Question 35: used air and water power
Keywords for this answer: used, air and water power,
In the second paragraph, the writer says in lines 1-3, “ . …. In Egypt, Ctesibius experimented with air pressure and pneumatic principles. One of his creations was a singing blackbird powered by water. .. . .. .”
Here, with air pressure & powered by water = used air and water power,
So, the answer is: A (Ctesibius)
Questions 36-40: Completing sentences with ONE WORD ONLY
In this type of question, candidates are asked to write maximum one word to complete sentences on the given topic. For this type of question, first, skim the passage to find the keywords in the paragraph concerned with the answer, and then scan to find the exact word.
[TIPS: Here scanning technique will come in handy. Target the keywords of the questions to find the answers. Remember to focus on Proper nouns, random Capital letters, numbers, special characters of text etc.]
Question 36: The Mechanical Theatre shows court life inside a ________.
Keywords for this question: The Mechanical Theatre, shows, court life, inside,
We find the reference to the Mechanical Theatre in paragraph no. 8, in the first line. Here, in lines 4-5 the writer says, “ . . . .. The figures inside a palace depict eighteenth-century court life, . . .. . ..”
So, the answer is: palace
Question 37: In the Mechanical Theatre, building workers, butchers and a barber represent various _______ of the time.
Keywords for this question: the Mechanical Theatre, building workers, butchers, a barber, represent, various, of the time,
Section D talks about the use of pans for extracting gold.
In paragraph no. 8, take a look at lines 5-8, “ . . . .. . A total of 141 mobile and 52 immobile little figures demonstrate all manner of trades of the period: building workers bring materials to the foreman, who drinks; butchers slaughter an ox; a barber shaves a man. .. .. ..”
Here, demonstrate all manner of = represent various, of the period = of the time,
So, the answer is: trades
Question 38: _________ provides the power that operates the Mechanical Theatre.
Keywords for this question: provides, the power, operates, the Mechanical Theatre,
We can’t find the answer directly in the passage. However, if you closely look at the final lines of paragraph no. 8, the writer says here, “ . . .. . The theatre shows great skill in clock making and water technology, consisting of hidden waterwheels, copper wiring and cogwheels.”
Here, hidden waterwheels, copper wiring and cogwheels indicate that the theatre was run by water power.
So, the answer is: water
Question 39: New _______ that developed in the nineteenth century reduced the cost of the production of automata.
Keywords for this question: new, developed, nineteenth century, reduced, cost of the production, automata,
In the final paragraph, take a look at the very first lines, where the author of the text says, “During the nineteenth century, mass production techniques meant that automata could be made cheaply and easily, . . .. ..”
Here, mass production techniques = new techniques that developed,
automata could be made cheaply = reduced the cost of the production of automata,
So, the answer is: techniques
Question 40: During the nineteenth century, most automata were intended for use by _________.
Keywords for this question: during, nineteenth century, most automata, intended for, use by,
Again, take a close look at lines 1-3 of the final paragraph, “During the nineteenth century, mass production techniques meant that automata could be made cheaply and easily, and they became toys for children rather than an expensive adult amusement. . .. ..”
Here, they became toys for = most automata were intended for use by,
So, the answer is: children