This IELTS Reading post is the second of the series post deals with a total solution package for IELTS Cambridge 13 Reading test 2 Passage 2 which is entitled Oxytocin. In this post, I’ve talked about all the answers and solutions for Reading Passage 2. This is another aimed post for candidates who have huge difficulties in finding and understanding IELTS Reading Answers. This post can easily direct you the best to figure out every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding IELTS Reading answers is a step-by-step routine and I hope this post can assist you in this topic.
Reading Passage 2:
The headline of the passage: Oxytocin
Questions 14-17: (Identifying information)
[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. For this passage, first, answer question 4- 13. After finishing with these questions, come to question 1-3. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph.]
Question 14: reference to research showing the beneficial effects of oxytocin on people
Keywords for this question: research, beneficial effects, on people
The reference to oxytocin having beneficial effects can be found in Paragraph B lines 10-11. Here, the author says, “…. These follow-up studies have shown that after a sniff of the hormone, people become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces and at communicating constructively in arguments.” So, we can see that there are some beneficial effects of oxytocin such as become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces and at communicating constructively in arguments.
So, the answer is: B
Question 15: reasons why the effects of oxytocin are complex
Keywords for this question: effects of oxytocin, complex
The answer is in Paragraph F. The first line says, “Perhaps we should not be surprised that the oxytocin story has become more perplexing.” This line means that the results of oxytocin are quite perplexing or complex.
So, the answer is: F
Question 16: mention of a period in which oxytocin attracted little scientific attention
Keywords for this question: period, oxytocin, attracted, little scientific attention
The answer can be found in lines 7-8 of Paragraph B. Here, the writer gives a reference to Markus Heinrichs’ comment which clarifies the answer for us. “For eight years it was quite a lonesome field, . . ..” Here, lonesome field indicates a subject that has very little attention.
So, the answer is: B
Question 17: reference to people ignoring certain aspects of their research area
Keywords for this question: ignoring, certain aspects, research data
In Paragraph E, lines 3-4 give us information about researchers ignoring their own research data. Here, the writer says, “… .. Where once researchers took no notice of such findings, . .. .”
So, the answer is: E
Question 18-20: (Matching references with their researchers)
(In this type of question, candidates need to relate references which are given by or links to researchers in the passage. This question is similar to matching names with statements. The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the name of the person and read around it carefully. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same person in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order.)
Question 18: People are more trusting when affected by oxytocin
Keywords for this question: more trusting, affected by oxytocin
The answer can be found in Paragraph B. Here, the author says, “.. In a groundbreaking experiment, Markus Heinrichs and his colleagues at the University of Freiburg, Germany, asked volunteers to do an activity in which they could invest money with an anonymous person who was not guaranteed to be honest . .. . .. . . ….. . . . These follow-up studies have shown that after a sniff of the hormone, people become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces and at communicating constructively in arguments.” So, Markus Heinrichs’ comments suggest that when volunteers did the activity with the persons they don’t know (anonymous), they actually showed more trust after sniffing oxytocin.
So, the answer is: A (Markus Heinrichs)
Question 19: Oxytocin increases people’s feelings of jealousy
Keywords for this question: oxytocin, increases, jealousy
In Paragraph C, we learn about the findings of Simone Shamay-Tsoory of University of Haifa, Israel. Lines 3-4 says that in his findings “.. .. . . those who inhaled the hormone showed more pleasure when they beat other players and felt more envy when others won.” Here, envy = jealousy
So, the answer is: B (Simone Shamay-Tsoory)
Question 20: The effect of oxytocin varies from one type of person to another
Keywords for this question: effect, varies, from one type to another
In Paragraph C, lines 4-8 says, “…… . What’s more, administrating oxytocin also has sharply contrasting outcomes depending on a person’s disposition. Jennifer Bartz from Monti Sinai School of Medicine, New York found that it improves people’s ability to emotions, but only if they are not very socially adept to begin with.” This clearly means the effects of oxytocin can be different, even contrasting, in people in different circumstances. Here, varies = sharply contrasting outcomes depending on a person’s disposition.
So, the answer is: C (Jennifer Bartz)
Question 21-26 (Completing summary with ONE WORD ONLY)
(In this kind of questions candidates are given a summary for one, two or three paragraphs with some fill in the blanks questions. As these are fill in the blanks or gaps, there is a condition of writing no more than ONE, TWO or THREE words for each answer and candidates must maintain this condition. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords form the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers for fill in the gaps.)
The title of the summary is: Oxytocin research
Question 21: The earliest findings about oxytocin and bonding came from research involving _______.
Keywords for this question: earliest findings, came from, involving,
The answer to this question can be found at the very beginning of the passage. In Paragraph A lines 2-3, the author says, “.. . .. . . It was through various studies focusing on animals that scientists first became aware of the influence of oxytocin.”
Here, studies = research, Scientists first became aware = earliest findings
So, the answer is: animals
Question 22: It was also discovered that humans produce oxytocin during ________.
Keywords for this question: discovered, humans produce oxytocin, during
The answer is in lines 5-6 of Paragraph A. Here, the writer says, “.. . .. It is also released by women in childbirth, strengthening the attachment between mother and baby.” This plainly indicates that humans produce oxytocin at childbirth.
So, the answer is: childbirth
Question 23: An experiment in 2005, in which participants were given either oxytocin or a _______, reinforced the belief that the hormone had a positive effect.
Keywords for this question: 2005, participants, either oxytocin or, reinforced, positive effects
We find the reference of the 2005 experiment in Paragraph B. Here, in lines 4-6, the writer mentions, “.. . .. The team found that participants who had sniffed oxytocin via a nasal spray beforehand invested more money than those who received a placebo instead .. . … ..” So, the participants in the experiment were given either oxytocin or a placebo.
So, the answer is: placebo
Question 24: A study at the University of Haifa where participants took part in a __________ revealed the negative emotions which oxytocin can trigger.
Keywords for this answer: study, University of Haifa, participants took part, negative emotions
The answer is in Paragraph C, lines 2-4, from where we also found the answer to question 19. Here, the author writes, “. .. .. found that when volunteers played a competitive game, those who inhaled the hormone showed more pleasure when they beat other players and felt more envy when others won.” This means participants who took part in a game, showed envy or jealousy which is a negative emotion.
So, the answer is: game
Question 25: A study at the University of Antwerp showed people’s lack of willingness to help ______ while under the influence of oxytocin.
Keywords for this answer: the University of Antwerp, lack of willingness
Answer to this question can be found in Paragraph D. Here, in lines 2-4, the writer says, “Studies conducted by Carolyn Declerck of the University of Antwerp, Belgium, revealed that people who had received a dose of oxytocin actually became less cooperative when dealing with complete strangers.” This means people taking a dose of oxytocin showed a lack of willingness to help strangers.
So, the answer is: strangers
Question 26: research at the University of Amsterdam revealed that people who have been given oxytocin consider _______ that are familiar to them in their own country to have more positive association than those from other cultures.
Keywords for this answer: the University of Amsterdam, given oxytocin, consider names, familiar to them
The answer to this question is found in Paragraph D, lines 5-7, where the writer says, “. . . . Meanwhile, Carsten De Dreu at the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands discovered that volunteers given oxytocin showed favouritism, Dutchmen became quicker to associate positive words with Dutch names than with foreign ones, ….”
Here, the writer means that the Netherlands experiment shows that the participants taking oxytocin showed a positive association with their own country who were given names to consider.
So, the answer is: names
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