This IELTS Reading post discusses about all the answers and solutions for Cambridge 13 Reading Passage 3 which is titled ‘Whatever happened to the Harappan Civilisation?’. This is another intended post for candidates who have the most difficulties in finding and understanding IELTS Reading Answers. This post can simply guide you the best to figure out every Reading answer without trouble. Finding IELTS Reading answers is a step-by-step routine and I hope this post can assist you in this topic.
Reading Passage 3:
The headline of the passage: Whatever happened to the Harappan Civilisation?
Questions 27-31: (Identifying information)
[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. For this passage, first answer question 4- 13. After finishing with these questions, come to question 1-3. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph.]
Question 27: proposed explanations for the decline of the Harappan Civilization
Keywords for this question: proposed explanations, decline
The answer is in lines 1-3 of paragraph C. The writer says here, “Some have claimed that major glacier-fed rivers changed their course, dramatically affecting the water supply and agriculture; or the city could not cope with an increasing population, they exhausted their resource base, the trading economy broke down or they succumbed to invasion and conflict….” Here, some have claimed = proposed explanations
So, the answer is: C
Question 28: reference to a present-day application of some archeological research findings
Keywords for this question: present-day application, archeological research findings
In the last paragraph or Paragraph H, we find the reference to a present-day application of some archeological research findings. Our answer is in lines 2-4 of paragraph H. Here, the writer of the passage gives the quote of Petrie: “By investigating responses to environmental pressures and threats, we can learn from the past to engage with the public, and the relevant governmental and administrative bodies, to be more proactive in issues such as…”. These lines suggest that their investigating technique is a modern or present-day application.
So, the answer is: H
Question 29: a difference between the Harappan Civilization and another culture of the same period
Keywords for this question: difference, the Harappan Civilization, another culture of the same period
The answer is in the first paragraph or paragraph A. Here, in lines 2-3 we find the reference of the Harappan Civilization and in lines 5-7 we find reference of Egyptian Civilization. “…..But their lack of self-imagery – at a time when the Egyptians were carving and painting representations of themselves all over the temples – is only part of the mystery.”
So, the answer is: A
Question 30: a description of some features of Harappan urban design
Keywords for this question: description, features, urban design
The answer to this question lies in paragraph B, where we find the comments of Dr. Cameron Petrie of the University of Cambridge. “… . . As population increased, cities were built that had great baths, craft workshops, palaces and halls laid out in distinct sectors. Houses were arranged in blocks, with wide main streets and narrow alleyways, and many had their own wells and drainage systems.”
These lines indicate directly to the city-design of civilization.
So, the answer is: B
Question 31: reference to the discovery of errors made by previous archaeologists
Keywords for this question: discovery, errors, previous archeologists
In paragraph D, the author gives reference to the faults done by previous archeologists. Look at lines 7-8, “…. They realized that any attempt to use the existing data were likely to be fundamentally flawed.”
Here, flawed = with errors or mistakes
So, the answer is: D
Questions 32-37 : (Summary completion with NO MORE THAN ONE WORD)
(In this kind of question candidates are given a summary for one, two or three paragraphs with some fill in the blanks questions. As these are fill in the blanks or gaps, there is a condition of writing no more than ONE, TWO or THREE words for each answer and candidates must maintain this condition. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords form the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers to fill in the gaps.)
Question 32: By collection the _______ of snails and analyzing them,
Keywords for this question: collection, snails
The answer can be found in line 5 of Paragraph E where we find the words gathered and snails. Look at the line, “…the researchers gathered shells of Melanoides tuberculate snails from the sediments of an ancient lake…”
Here, gathered = collection
So, the answer is: shells
Question 33: they discovered evidence of a change in water levels in a _______ in the region.
Keywords for this question: discovered evidence, change, water levels,
The answer is in lines 8-10 of Paragraph E. Here, the author writes, “But we have observed that there was an abrupt change about 4,100 years ago, when the amount of evaporation from the lake exceeded the rainfall – indicative of a drought.” Here, we can see that the evidence of water-level change was found in a lake.
So, the answer is: lake
Question 34: This occurred when there was less _________ than evaporation, and suggests that there was an extended period of drought.
Keywords for this question: less, evaporation, drought
The answer to this question is also found in lines 8-10 of Paragraph E. Here, the author mentions, “But we have observed that there was an abrupt change about 4,100 years ago, when the amount of evaporation from the lake exceeded the rainfall – indicative of a drought.” Here, it says that evaporation exceeded rainfall, which in an alternative way, means that rainfall was less than evaporation.
So, the answer is: rainfall
Question 35: Petrie and Singh’s team are using archeological records to look at _________ from five millennia ago,
Keywords for this question: Petrie and Singh’s, archeological records, five millennia ago
Lines 1-4 of paragraph G contain the answer to this question. Here, the author talks about Petrie and Singh’s teamwork, “Petrie and Singh’s team is now examining archaeological records and trying to understand details of how people led their lives in the region five millennia ago. They are analysing grains cultivated at the time…’
Here, analyse means look at and at the time means five millennia ago
So, the answer is: grains
Question 36: They are also examining objects including _________, so as to find out about links between inhabitants of different parts of the region and whether these changed over time.
Keywords for this question: examining objects, links between inhabitants, different parts of the region
The answer is the lines 6-7 of paragraph G. “They are also looking at whether the types of pottery used, and other aspects of their material culture, were distinctive to specific regions or more similar across large areas… .” The lines mean that the archeologists are examining pottery.
So, the answer is: pottery
Questions 37-40 (Matching references with researchers)
(In this type of question, candidates need to relate references which are given by or links to researchers in the passage. This question is similar to matching names with statements. The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the name of the person and read around it carefully. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same person in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order.)
Question 37: Finding further information about changes to environmental conditions in the region is vital.
Keywords for this question: changes to environmental conditions, vital
The answer is found in lines 5-8 of paragraph F. The author talks here of the quotes of Dr. Rabindanath Singh, “Considering the vast area of the Harappan Civilisation with its variable weather systems, it is essential that we obtain more climate data from areas close to the two great cities at Mohenjodaro and Harappa and also from the Indian Punjab.” Here, variable weather conditions = changes in environmental conditions, essential = vital
So, the answer is: B (Dr. Rabindanath Singh)
Question 38: Examining previous patterns of behaviour may have long-term benefits.
Keywords for this question: previous patterns of behaviour, long-term benefits
Take a look at Paragraph H where Cameron Petrie’s quote is: “By investigating responses to environmental pressures and threats, we can learn from the past to engage with the public, and the relevant governmental and administrative bodies, to be more proactive in issues such as…”
Here, previous = the past, long term benefits = to be more protective
So, the answer is: A (Cameron Petrie)
Question 39: Rough calculations indicate the approximate length of a period of water shortage.
Keywords for this question: rough calculations, water shortage
Answer to this question can be found in paragraph E. Paragraph E, David Hodell comments, “… We estimate that the weakening of the Indian summer monsoon climate lasted about 200 years before recovering to the previous condition… . ..”
Here, estimate = rough calculations; lasted about 200 years = the approximate length of water shortage
So, the answer is: D (David Hodell)
Question 40: Information about the decline of the Harappan Civilization has been lacking.
Keywords for this question: decline, lacking
The writer opens Paragraph B with the quote of Cameron Patrie, “.. .. There is plenty of archaeological evidence to tell us about the rise of the Harappan Civilization, but relatively little about its fall.”
Here, relatively little = lacking; fall = decline
So, the answer is: A (Cameron Petrie)
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